The term IP means Internet Protocol, which is a network protocol used within a network model called Transmission Control Protocol, better summarized as TCP / IP.
The internet protocol basically refers to sending and receiving data packets from the sender to the recipient, and in this example the IP address would be the address of the recipient’s house who will receive the letter or package from the sender.
So that within the world of the internet and intranet several computers can perform connectivity between them (that is, they can send and receive packets), they must necessarily have an IP address so they can be found.
Any device that has at least one interface with an IP address that can send and receive packets is called a host.
There are two versions of IP addressing, which are 4 and 6; IPv4 addresses (IP version 4) are made up of 4 octets separated by a period as follows:
IP addresses consist of 32 bit, usually written in decimal point notation (DDN). The decimal term comes from the fact that each byte (8 bits) of the 32 bits is denoted or separated by a period; for example 184.108.40.206 is an IP address written in decimal point form, the current value in binary version would be 10101000 00000001 00000001 00000001. Each DDN has four decimal octets, separated by dots.
The term octet is only one byte term, because each octet represents 8 bits in binary number, the range of each decimal number of each octet is from 0 to 255.
In the same way it is important to know that there are 3 classes of IPv4 which are separated by ranges:
These kinds of classes help us define the type of network and the size of each network.
All these are basic foundations for organizing networks through groups, in this case VLANS, since the more divided and organized your network is, the less will be prone to failures.